M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823,
Closely allied to M. macconnelli (with M. roraimae) and M. rufiventris; all were long placed in a separate genus, Pipromorpha, on basis of specialized outer primaries of male, but they share numerous characters (including unusual lek breeding system) with both M. striaticollis and M. olivaceus. Races fall into two groups according to plumage, the “assimilis group” and the “oleagineus group”. Variation within former sufficient to warrant recognition of several races, but obscurus (El Salvador), dyscolus (W Costa Rica and extreme W Panama) and lutescens (W Panama, including Coiba I) merged with assimilis, as they represent barely discernible intermediate forms within a broad N–S cline. Geographical variation across widespread “oleagineus group” exceedingly minor, while individual, age-specific and sexual variation considerable; proposed races intensus (SE Venezuela and W Guyana), wallacei (the Guianas, NE & E Amazonian Brazil E of R Negro; form M. turi from “Cayenne” is a synonym), chloronotus (Amazon Basin), hauxwelli (E Ecuador and NE Peru N of Amazon) and maynanus (EC Peru S to Pasco) all treated as synonyms of nominate. Molecular evidence reveals unexpected patterns of dispersal across Andes#R. Seven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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