P. L. Sclater, 1858,
Río Napo, Ecuador.
In past, races boliviana and similis have together been treated as a separate species, but similis is close to nominate in plumage, while boliviana is simply more heavily streaked below; examination of museum specimens suggests that at least some of the “intermediate populations” in Peru between Pasco and Puno are boliviana, and there is good evidence that boliviana occurs N all the way to C Peru#R. Race zarumae also distinctive, but seemingly part of a mosaic that places it closest in plumage to costaricensis; considerable individual variation in coloration among all populations of Colombia and Ecuador, and vocal differences among all taxa appear to be slight. Eight subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!