Family Finches (Fringillidae)

Least Concern

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster)


French: Organiste à ventre orange German: Gelbbauchorganist Spanish: Eufonia ventrinaranja

E[uphone [sic]]. xanthogaster


, 1834,

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Taxon “E. vittata” believed to be a hybrid between present species and E. pectoralis. Implication in HBW that, owing to the nominate race’s geographical isolation, all other races might better be treated as a separate species unwarranted; plumage differences few and small. Among other races, geographical differences in voice, especially of W Amazonian dilutior and brunneifrons when compared to Andean races, suggest that more than a single species may be involved; in contrast, proposed race lecroyana (described from R Chiquito in Táchira, Venezuela) minimally distinct, so treated as synonym of badissima; several other races are also poorly differentiated; taxonomic review required. Race oressinoma intergrades with badissima in N Colombia (W of Ocaña, in Norte de Santander). Eleven subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • E. x. chocoensis Hellmayr, 1911 – extreme E Panama (Cerro Pirre, Altos de Quía, Cerro Sapo and R Jaqué) and Pacific Colombia W of Andes (S from Chocó) S to NW Ecuador (N Esmeraldas, Imbabura).
  • E. x. quitensis (Nelson, 1912) – W Ecuador (S from Pichincha) and NW Peru.
  • E. x. exsul Berlepsch, 1912 – NE Colombia, and N cordilleras of Venezuela from Carabobo E to Miranda (Cerro Negro) and N Monagas (Caripe).
  • E. x. badissima Olson, 1981 – Sierra de Perijá (Colombia–Venezuela border) and Andes of Venezuela (Lara S to Táchira) and adjacent Colombia (Norte de Santander and Boyacá).
  • E. x. oressinoma Olson, 1981 – W & C Andes of Colombia (and once on W slope of E Andes in Santander).
  • E. x. brevirostris Bonaparte, 1851 – E Colombia (upper Magdalena Valley; generally E of Andes from Norte de Santander S to Meta) S to E Ecuador and E Peru (W of Ucayali Valley), E to S Venezuela, C Guyana and NW Brazil (R Uaupés, Tahuapunto).
  • E. x. dilutior (J. T. Zimmer, 1943) – SE Colombia and NE Peru (Ucayali Valley).
  • E. x. cyanonota Parkes, 1969 – W & C Brazil from R Juruá (João Pessoa; Lago Grande) and R Purus to R Tapajós.
  • E. x. brunneifrons Chapman, 1901 – SE Peru (Cuzco and Puno).
  • E. x. ruficeps d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837 – Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba).
  • E. x. xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834 – coastal E Brazil (C Bahia S to C Rio de Janeiro).
  • Descriptive notes

    9–11 cm; 9–16 g. Variable species with thick, stubby bill. Male nominate race has forehead to slightly beyond mid-crown deep yellow, rest of head and nape glossy... read more


    In Colombia and Venezuela call a nasal, gravelly “nay nay” or nasal, complaining... read more


    In all areas occurs in humid and wet forest, along forest borders, gaps, treefalls, and in... read more

    Food and feeding

    Fruits and berries; some insects, also spiders (Araneae). Contents of five stomachs were vegetable matter, including mistletoe berries (... read more


    In Colombia, seven nests in Nov–Apr in W Valle and birds in breeding condition in May–Jul in Perijá Mts; adult feeding... read more


    Primarily resident. Some seasonal wandering has been noted, but no significant movements reported. read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Widespread and generally common W of Andes and in Amazonian lowlands. Occurs in many protected areas; found also in many unprotected sites that... read more

    Recommended citation

    Hilty, S. (2019). Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 17 June 2019).