São Francisco Island, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Has sometimes been linked with F. peregrinus complex, but now considered related to F. subbuteo group (which see). Similarity to F. rufigularis probably indicates a recent common ancestor, rather than convergence; vocal behaviour unusual among falcons, shared only with latter species. Monotypic.
S Mexico S through Central America to Colombia, E to the Guianas, and S, E of Andes, through Peru#R, Brazil and Bolivia to Paraguay and N Argentina. Formerly thought to nest only around periphery of Amazon, but recent records of adults and juveniles in C Brazilian Amazonia suggest that species breeds throughout extensive range.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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