Family Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae)

Near Threatened

Orange-spotted Bulbul (Pycnonotus bimaculatus)


French: Bulbul bimaculé German: Goldfleckbülbül Spanish: Bulbul bimaculado

Turdus bimaculatus


, 1821,



Until recently considered conspecific with P. snouckaerti (which see). As type of bimaculatus is from C (not E) Java, the name barat is a junior synonym of nominate; name tenggerensis must therefore be restored for the E Java race, which is weakly characterized. Two subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. b. bimaculatus (Horsfield, 1821) – C & S Sumatra and W & C Java.
  • P. b. tenggerensis (van Oort, 1911) – E Java and Bali.
  • Probably introduced on Lombok I.

    Descriptive notes

    20 cm. Dark-coloured, active, conspicuous uncrested bulbul with rounded tail. Nominate race has crown blackish brown, lightly fringed greyish; head mostly dark, blackest on... read more


    Noisy, giving variety of loud, harsh songs, including “toc-toc-toc-toroc” and loud clear “chewlk-... read more


    Edges of primary forest, tall second growth, scrub and elfin forest near summit of mountains. Nests... read more

    Food and feeding

    Essentially a frugivore. Visits berry-laden trees and shrubs, including blueberries (Vaccinium), in lower and middle storeys.... read more


    Breeds throughout year; records from Java show that nesting occurs in all months, with peak in May. Nest a robustly built, cup-shaped... read more


    Resident. In non-breeding season, larger aggregations form locally, some of these gathering to... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near Threatened. Restricted-range species: present in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia EBA and Java and Bali Forests EBA. Locally... read more

    Recommended citation

    Fishpool, L., Tobias, J. & Kirwan, G.M. (2020). Orange-spotted Bulbul (Pycnonotus bimaculatus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 24 January 2020).