South Carolina, USA.
Very closely related to, and often regarded as conspecific with, I. fuertesi; the two have discrete breeding ranges, but no evidence of intergradation where ranges approach one another, and vocalizations, especially calls, differ#R#R. Birds from C plateau of Mexico sometimes treated as a geographical race, phillipsi, on basis of larger size and slight differences in juvenile plumage, but such differences barely detectable. Monotypic.
S Canada (S Saskatchewan, S Manitoba and extreme SE Ontario) and most of E USA (from North Dakota and Maine, locally W to NE Montana and E Colorado), S in Mexico to Jalisco, Michoacán and Hidalgo; winters from S Mexico (Sinaloa and Veracruz) S throughout Central America to Colombia and extreme NW Venezuela.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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