Relationships uncertain. Although occasionally considered to include P. prigoginei as a race, latter seems to exhibit much too marked differences. Until recently considered conspecific with P. assimilus, which was separated from present species in one regional work#R on account of song being a “series of complex... whining, tremulous whistled notes, much slower than Oriental, with much more complex, longer, multi-element notes” vs “loud, eerie, hesitant series of highly musical, quavering, melancholy, fluty whistles, each successive note rising slightly in pitch” (3); tail more densely, evenly and completely barred (eight regular bars across feathers vs six irregular bars that do not reach edges of vanes) (2); darker coloration above (less rufous, more chestnut) (1); spotting on crown of most individuals (absent in nearest-neighbour race P. b. saturatus), and larger white spotting on upperparts (vestigial in saturatus) (1). That same publication#R also referred to the “vinous-pink forehead-patch not including top of crown (so face more heart-shaped)”, but this seems variable among specimens. Taxonomic status of SE Asian forms requires clarification: birds of Thailand sometimes assigned to saturatus and sometimes to nominate badius, with those of Myanmar considered intermediate; present arrangement, with populations from N & C Myanmar E to Vietnam and China placed with Indian birds in saturatus, and those of S Myanmar and peninsular Thailand in nominate, perhaps tentative, and extent of possible intergradation between the two in C? & S Myanmar and SW Thailand undetermined. Race arixuthus may be untenable, as based on unique type. Also, single record from E Philippines (Samar) described as a separate race, riverae; included in nominate race in recent works, although size and colour characters in type description suggest closer affinities to saturatus, or possibly a valid race, but specimen destroyed in 1945 and no further conclusions possible. Four subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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