Until recently considered conspecific with C. mindanensis (see that species). Races fall into “saularis group” (with ceylonensis, andamanensis and musicus; white belly, white in tail) and “amoenus group” (remaining races; black belly, white in tail, with a few exceptions); latter very distinctive based on one major character difference, forming (in places fairly narrow) hybrid zones with musicus diagonally across C Java and in N–S line from W Sabah to Banjarmasin, Borneo (musicus judged to be a relatively recent invader steadily swamping the black-bellied forms#R); further research into taxonomic status of amoenus group needed, but there is some evidence of genetic differentiation#R. Described race problematicus from Borneo is an intergrade between musicus and pluto. Several other named races are poorly differentiated or part of clinal variation, or based on very small sample sizes: erimelas (NE India E to Indochina, and SW Guangxi, in China)#R and prosthopellus (China and Hainan) synonymized with nominate, and zacnecus (Simeulue I), nesiarchus (Nias I), masculus (Batu Is), pagiensis (Mentawai) and javensis (W Java) with musicus. Seven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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