Sometimes treated as conspecific with O. scops, and has been considered conspecific both with O. senegalensis and with O. brucei, or to include O. enganensis, O. umbra, O. mirus, O. mindorensis, O. elegans and O. mantananensis as races; all now shown to be specifically distinct on basis mainly of vocalizations. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that present species may be closest to O. socotranus and O. insularis#R#R. Races distans and nicobaricus previously in HBW considered synonymous with modestus, but reinstated here following recent authors#R#R; form modestus treated in one recent work#R as full species, evidently on account of a marked difference in song, but morphological differences remain to be clearly identified and evaluated and even song represents a clear derivative of that of sunia. Original specimen of O. alius initially assigned to race nicobaricus (at that time = modestus) of present species. Proposed race khasiensis (from Meghalaya, in NE India) synonymized with nominate. Nine subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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