Extremely confused; genetic data indicate that races form two groups, perhaps better considered separate species, although more complete taxon sampling required#R#R. See remarks under Z. japonicus. Formerly considered to form a species complex with Z. salvadorii and Z. everetti: under that arrangement, race siamensis treated as a species, auriventer (together with race tahanensis of Z. everetti) as another species, melanurus and unicus then constituting a third species, and remaining races of present species (together with Z. salvadorii and remaining races of Z. everetti) forming the fourth species. However, Z. salvadorii and Z. e. everetti now believed to be more distantly related to present species. Population in neighbourhood of Mt Gede Pangrango, in W Java, intermediate between races buxtoni and melanurus. Races egregius and salimalii possibly better subsumed into nominate. Birds in Cambodia of uncertain racial identity, provisionally included in williamsoni; those on Andaman Is currently included in nicobaricus, but possibly represent an undescribed race. Proposed races joannae (described from SE Yunnan, China) and occidentis (Simla, N India) synonymized with nominate, and amabilis (Kathiawar Peninsula, W India) merged with egregius. Eleven subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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