Family Tanagers (Thraupidae)

Least Concern

Orinocan Saltator (Saltator orenocensis)


French: Saltator de l’Orénoque German: Zimtflankensaltator Spanish: Pepitero del Orinoco

Saltator orenocensis


, 1846,

mouth of the Orinoco, Venezuela


Two subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • S. o. rufescens Todd, 1912 – NE Colombia (Guajira Peninsula E from Santa Marta) and W Vene­zuela (N & SE Zulia E to N Lara and C Falcón).
  • S. o. orenocensis Lafresnaye, 1846 – Venezuela E of Andes from Cojedes and W Apure E to W Sucre and S Monagas, to S bank of R Orinoco in N Bolívar and S Delta Amacuro) and NE Colombia (Arauca, N Vichada).
  • Descriptive notes

    18·5–19 cm; average 33·7 g (six birds from Venezuela). Nominate has lores, face, ear-coverts and malar region black, long white supercilium extending past ear-coverts; crown... read more


    Song a loud, rollicking series of notes, often given by more than one bird, perhaps antiphonally, “... read more


    Inhabits dry deciduous woodland and brush, including well-vegetated suburban areas, mesic... read more

    Food and feeding

    Diet predominantly vegetable, with some insects. Recorded items include flowers, fruits (in the wild, fruits of Annona jahni and... read more


    Few data. In Venezuela, single nests found in May and mid-Jun in Orinoco region and birds in breeding condition in May in Guárico. Nest... read more


    Apparently sedentary.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Fairly common in suitable habitat in parts of range. Reports of presence in Trinidad erroneous.

    Recommended citation

    Brewer, D. (2019). Orinocan Saltator (Saltator orenocensis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 21 May 2019).