Proposed race elisabethae (Uliastai, in NW Mongolia) seems based on individual variability. Monotypic.
Europe from N Fennoscandia (almost reaching Arctic Circle) S, very patchily, to N Portugal, C Spain, S France, Italy, Greece, Crete, Turkey and (rare) N Israel, extending E across European Russia, Ukraine and N Caspian region to N Kazakhstan and Altai and Khangai Ranges in NW & WC Mongolia and, in S, through Caucasus, N Iraq and N Iran to borders of Turkmenistan; also N Africa (coastal Algeria). Non-breeding range not well known, probably mountains along S fringes of Sahara, where recorded from Mauritania and Senegal to Nigeria in W, and Sudan E to Ethiopia and Somalia in E, and probably includes Yemen and Oman.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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