Europe = Sweden.
SE race sometimes referred to by name leucocephalus#R, but cristatus has priority. Proposal that races represent three species (on basis of morphological and genetic differences)#R requires further study. Recent trend to separate shorter-winged, whiter-headed and streakier-breasted race cristatus as full species#R, largely on genetic grounds#R, requires fuller review of evidence. Proposed races melvillensis (Melville I) and microhaliaetus (New Caledonia) both very similar to cristatus and here synonymized with it#R, although former sometimes considered valid#R. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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