New South Wales, Australia.
Recent molecular phylogeny#R placed this species in a clade with A. acuticauda, with which it was in the past occasionally considered conspecific. Recent reassessment#R proposed splitting all taxa accepted below into four species; some characters itemized, however, could not be determined in independent review of material, while others involved averages and, in case of leuconyx, proven vs unproven use of other birds’ nests, thus taxa retained here as subspecies pending further documentation of evidence including “clear” differences in voice#R. Taxon cooki recently found to be closer genetically to A. acuticauda, so molecular study of these taxa evidently required#R. Case for recognizing race salimali and replacing name kanoi with kurodae#R accepted here; some recent authors retain name kanoi, suspecting that type of kurodae “could represent nominate pacificus”#R. Otherwise, proposed race shiraii (S Izu Is, Japan) included within nominate. Five subspecies recognized.
May breed (race unknown) also in Batan Is and Babuyan Is#R (N Philippines).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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