Cimeterio do Lambari, near Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil.
Genetic data#R suggest that this species forms a group with S. frontalis, S. azarae and S. courseni. See also S. albigularis (above). Song of race australis distinctive, but, within that taxon’s range, birds in E Paraguay, N Bolivia (Beni) and SE Peru sing like other races whereas those in NW Uruguay, C Bolivia (Cochabamba) and throughout Argentina sing differently#R; a previously undetected taxon may be involved, although specimen evidence does not appear to reflect this. Populations from arid areas usually palest, although some variation (probably due to individual and age variation in small sample sizes), and many races tentatively recognized (especially in N South America). Proposed race hypoleuca (C Panama), described as paler below, is synonymous with latitabunda. Race nesiotis originally described (Margarita I, off N Venezuela) as like nominate but paler, but, with its distribution expanded to include large areas of mainland, distinguishing characters now unclear; proposed race trinitatis (Trinidad and N Venezuela) said to have darker crown and wing-coverts and more buff-brown back than that race, but these characters appear uncertain. Proposed race griseonota (confluence of R Tapajós and R Amazon), described as having paler crown and wing-coverts and more greyish underparts than inaequalis; may merit recognition. Ten subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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