South America = Suriname.
Treated as conspecific with T. niger in HBW, but this arrangement not followed here, although situation unclear and several options plausible: (a) arrangement posited here (for which see T. niger); (b) same arrangement as (a) but with race loehkeni transferred to T. niger; (c) same arrangement as (a) but with loehkeni elevated to monotypic species level; (d) all relevant taxa treated as conspecific as in HBW. Since there are several regions from which no or only a few specimens have been secured, exact limits of racial distributions not yet reliably determined. In W Amazonia, two zones of character intergradation exist between races cervinicauda and rufigastra on the one hand, and rufigastra and leucurus on the other, apparent in belly and tail coloration. Proposed race freirei from Amapá (N Brazil) is inseparable from a dull male loehkeni; proposed race cristinae is a synonym of loehkeni. Five subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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