#R, Atlantic slope of Canal Zone on Panama Railroad, Isthmus of Panama.
Formerly treated as conspecific with M. ferox, but the two differ in vocalizations and do not respond to playback of each other’s voice; similarly, species-level separation from M. venezuelensis argued on basis of sympatry in extreme NW Venezuela (near Cerro Alto del Cedro) and in N Colombia (Cansoma, in Bolívar). Analyses of morphological characters and mtDNA#R indicate close affinities with those two species and with M. phaeocephalus, but precise relationships unclear. Ecological and genetic study in zones of parapatry and sympatry would be rewarding, and re-examination needed of geographical distributions of these taxa, especially S & E of L Maracaibo (W Venezuela). Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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