North America = South Carolina.
Forests in E & C Canada and USA, occasionally wandering S to Mexico and Cuba.
The last wild individual was shot in 1900, and surveys in 1910–1911 failed to record any#R. The last captive bird, given the name “Martha”, died in 1914 in Cincinnati Zoo, Ohio#R. The extinction of this once abundant species was apparently caused chiefly by the destruction of native deciduous forest of E North America (on which it was dependent) combined with notoriously intense hunting pressure; social factors, such as its obligatory gregariousness, would have contributed, and in the later stages human disturbance of nesting sites would have prevented any real recovery#R.
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