d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1838,
Ayopaya, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Nominate race is morphologically distinct from the other two in its pale yellow vs off-white to whitish throat and underpart spotting (2), plain chestnut vs dark-scaled olive-brown crown (2), and shorter tail (effect size in males −1.4, score 1). All taxa have a variety of high-pitched vocalizations, ranging from short single notes (also doubled and tripled) to longer rattles, either at constant pitch or slightly rising and falling, and with variable pace; no significant differences have been found among races#R. Sight record in NW Argentina presumed to be of nominate, but may refer to an undescribed race. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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