Has been suggested that distinctiveness of female plumages of various insular populations of races fruticola and pyrrhonotus may warrant naming of additional races, but differences appear slight and possibly due to individual variation or age factors. Also postulated that population on Kisar (Lesser Sundas), currently ascribed to pyrrhonotus, may represent another unnamed race#R. Some authorities subsume races belensis and wahgiensis within aethiops#R. Very limited genetic sampling suggests reasonably deep divergence between mainland Asia (Nepal) and Indonesian (Timor) populations#R; further study required. Sixteen subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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