French: Bruant à calotte blanche German: Fichtenammer Spanish: Escribano cabeciblanco
S. G. Gmelin
Subspecies and Distribution
E. l. leucocephalos
S. G. Gmelin, 1771 – E European Russia from C & S Ural region (Sverdlovsk district and Chelyabinsk) E across Siberia (N to c. 62° in W and 67° in E) to Russian Far East (upper R Kolyma and mountains N of Sea of Okhotsk), S to N Kazakhstan, C & E Tien Shan, NW & NE China, N Mongolia, and lower R Amur, Sakhalin and S Kuril Is; bulk of population winters from Iran, Afghanistan and N Pakistan E to Nepal, N China and Japan (also tiny numbers in Levant and Europe).
E. l. fronto
Stresemann, 1930 – NE Qinghai (from E border of Zaidam Depression) E to S Gansu, in NC China.
16–17·5 cm; 18·5–37 g. Rather large bunting, similar in size to E. citrinella, but slightly larger, with tail 5–10% longer. Male... read more
Calls and song very similar structurally to those of E. citrinella, songs being only a... read more
Prefers edges of forests and clearings in S taiga, also areas devoid of trees following logging or... read more
Food and feeding
Diet during breeding season mainly invertebrates, such as grasshoppers (Orthoptera), bugs (Hemiptera), beetles (Coleoptera), caterpillars (... read more
Season late Apr to end of Jul, usually most pairs starting during May; normally two broods. Nest built by female, a tightly woven cup of... read more
Chinese race fronto resident. Nominate race migratory. Autumn migration starts in Aug or... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Locally common. No realistic estimates of global population, since bulk of this breeding in Siberia, where surveys needed; European... read more
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!