Family Finches (Fringillidae)

Least Concern

Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)


French: Durbec des sapins German: Hakengimpel Spanish: Camachuelo picogrueso

Loxia Enucleator


, 1758,



Despite some morphological similarities to Carpodacus, bill structure and mtDNA indicate closer relationship to Pyrrhula. New World races larger than Old World races, with shorter, broader and deeper bill, and blacker wings and tail, with divergent DNA#R#R; but songs appear to be very similar#R. Proposed races alascensis (described from Nushagak, in Alaska) and eschatosa (from Harry’s R, in Newfoundland) considered synonymous with leucura. Race pacata sometimes included in kamtschatkensis. Nine subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. e. enucleator (Linnaeus, 1758) – Eurasian Pine Grosbeak – Scandinavia (S Norway and C & N Sweden) E to C Siberia; winters S to S Sweden and SW Siberia.
  • P. e. pacata Bangs, 1913 – E Siberia (E of R Yenisey and Sayan Mts) E to Kolyma Basin and Sea of Okhotsk, S to C Altai, NE Kazakhstan, N Mongolia and Stanovoy Mts; winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
  • P. e. kamtschatkensis (Dybowski, 1883) – NE Russia (Anadyrland S to N Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka); winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
  • P. e. sakhalinensis Buturlin, 1915 – Sakhalin, Kuril Is and N Japan (Hokkaido).
  • P. e. flammula Homeyer, 1880 – Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak I S along coast to W Canada (NW British Columbia); winters S to C British Columbia, occasionally to Vancouver I.
  • P. e. leucura (Statius Müller, 1776) – American Pine Grosbeak – W & C Alaska, and in broad band E through C Canada to Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; winters S to S Canada and NE USA.
  • P. e. carlottae A. C. Brooks, 1922 – Queen Charlotte Is and Vancouver I, off W Canada.
  • P. e. montana Ridgway, 1898 – SW Canada (N British Columbia) S to WC USA (S to E Arizona and N & W New Mexico).
  • P. e. californica Price, 1897 – E California (Sierra Nevada).
  • Descriptive notes

    18·5–25·5 cm; 42–77 g. Large, long-tailed finch with large, stout, conical hook-tipped bill. Male nominate race has forehead to crown, nape and... read more


    Song, from prominent perch at top of shrub or tree, mid-Mar to mid-Aug (occasionally mid-Oct or Nov... read more


    Lowland, lower montane and subarctic conifer forests and woods, including larch (Larix),... read more

    Food and feeding

    Mostly seeds, buds, shoots and small fruits, also some invertebrates. Seeds and shoots include those of juniper, larch, spruce, pine, aspen... read more


    Season May–Jul; one brood. Monogamous. Solitary. Territory large, c. 400 m in ­diameter in North American studies, advertised by... read more


    Resident and partial migrant; occasionally irruptive. Scale of movements largely dependent on... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Common to locally common or seasonally common; uncommon to rare throughout most of American range. Estimated European breeding population between 36,... read more

    Recommended citation

    Clement, P. (2020). Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 27 February 2020).