French: Durbec des sapins German: Hakengimpel Spanish: Camachuelo picogrueso
Subspecies and Distribution
P. e. enucleator
(Linnaeus, 1758) – Eurasian Pine Grosbeak – Scandinavia (S Norway and C & N Sweden) E to C Siberia; winters S to S Sweden and SW Siberia.
P. e. pacata
Bangs, 1913 – E Siberia (E of R Yenisey and Sayan Mts) E to Kolyma Basin and Sea of Okhotsk, S to C Altai, NE Kazakhstan, N Mongolia and Stanovoy Mts; winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
P. e. kamtschatkensis
(Dybowski, 1883) – NE Russia (Anadyrland S to N Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka); winters S to NE China (Heilongjiang and Liaoning).
P. e. sakhalinensis
Buturlin, 1915 – Sakhalin, Kuril Is and N Japan (Hokkaido).
P. e. flammula
Homeyer, 1880 – Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak I S along coast to W Canada (NW British Columbia); winters S to C British Columbia, occasionally to Vancouver I.
P. e. leucura
(Statius Müller, 1776) – American Pine Grosbeak – W & C Alaska, and in broad band E through C Canada to Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; winters S to S Canada and NE USA.
P. e. carlottae
A. C. Brooks, 1922 – Queen Charlotte Is and Vancouver I, off W Canada.
P. e. montana
Ridgway, 1898 – SW Canada (N British Columbia) S to WC USA (S to E Arizona and N & W New Mexico).
P. e. californica
Price, 1897 – E California (Sierra Nevada).
18·5–25·5 cm; 42–77 g. Large, long-tailed finch with large, stout, conical hook-tipped bill. Male nominate race has forehead to crown, nape and... read more
Song, from prominent perch at top of shrub or tree, mid-Mar to mid-Aug (occasionally mid-Oct or Nov... read more
Lowland, lower montane and subarctic conifer forests and woods, including larch (Larix),... read more
Food and feeding
Mostly seeds, buds, shoots and small fruits, also some invertebrates. Seeds and shoots include those of juniper, larch, spruce, pine, aspen... read more
Season May–Jul; one brood. Monogamous. Solitary. Territory large, c. 400 m in diameter in North American studies, advertised by... read more
Resident and partial migrant; occasionally irruptive. Scale of movements largely dependent on... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened. Common to locally common or seasonally common; uncommon to rare throughout most of American range. Estimated European breeding population between 36,... read more
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