Family New World Warblers (Parulidae)

Least Concern

Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)


French: Paruline des pins German: Kiefernwaldsänger Spanish: Reinita del pinar

Certhia pinus


, 1766,

Charleston, South Carolina, USA


Affinities within genus uncertain. May be sister to S. pityophila, based on one study of mitochondrial DNA; or to S. palmarum, based on another. Known to have hybridized with S. coronata coronata. Some confusion regarding species name, as present name was until recently mistakenly also applied to Vermivora cyanoptera, while authority for present species was erroneously attributed to Wilson, who had merely acted as First Reviser#R#R. Four subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • S. p. pinus (Linnaeus, 1766) – SE Canada (from extreme SE Manitoba E to S Quebec and S New Brunswick) and E USA (E from Minnesota, Missouri and E Texas, excluding prairie regions of Midwest); winters in S part of breeding range and S to S Florida.
  • S. p. florida (Maynard, 1906) – S Florida.
  • S. p. achrustera (Bangs, 1900) – NW Bahamas (Grand Bahama, Abaco, New Providence and Andros).
  • S. p. chrysoleuca (Griscom, 1923) – Hispaniola.
  • Descriptive notes

    12·5–14·5 cm; 7–17 g. Male nominate race is olive-green on head and upperparts (upperparts faintly washed brownish in fresh autumn plumage), with... read more


    Unusually for a temperate-region parulid, sings throughout year. Song a rapid, musical trill on... read more


    Breeds almost exclusively in pine (Pinus) forests, usually in lowlands, especially where... read more

    Food and feeding

    Feeds mainly on insects and other arthropods; also takes pine seeds, fruit and berries in winter. Recorded as ingesting grit, possibly as... read more


    Season Mar–Jul, egg-laying Apr–Jun (exceptionally Mar and Jul); extended nesting season suggests possibility of two or even... read more


    Resident and short-distance migrant. N breeders of nominate race move S to SE USA in winter; moves... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Generally common and increasing throughout most of range; prone to population declines following particularly hard winters. Estimated... read more

    Recommended citation

    Curson, J. (2019). Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 June 2019).