Most closely related to T. bicinctus. Many subspecies described, but variation appears to be minor and essentially clinal, and further research required; those listed below may prove not to be tenable. Other proposed races include griseicapilla (Sumatra), parvus (NE Sumatra), mesochlous (Nias I, off W Sumatra), purpureus (Java) and zaleptus (Sulawesi). Five subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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