Closest to U. albigula and U. validirostris. Has been considered to form a superspecies with latter, and may be conspecific; considered together, the two exhibit a stepped cline in plumage coloration (increasingly rufescent to S) and perhaps a smooth cline in measurements, and songs sound very similar (although written descriptions differ somewhat); on the other hand, they appear to overlap in range in S Bolivia (Potosí); further study needed. Vocally distinctive race pallida possibly a separate species. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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