Cametá (Rio Tocantins), Brazil.
Hitherto treated as conspecific with X. minutus. Molecular analysis#R and vocal evidence#R combine to indicate strong difference between NW clade (“mexicanus group”) and SE clade (“genibarbis group”); former taxa sing with accelerating trill that rises, then falls, while latter produce slower (2) song with fewer notes (2), not varying (or little) in speed and pitch (indeed, mexicanus and ridgwayi differ somewhat in loudsong from others in their clade, accelerating more and falling more in pitch at end); however, morphological distinctions between these groups slight, and fuller analysis of all evidence needed before species limits reconsidered. Race alagoanus, widely overlooked since first described in 1954, is most similar to members of SE clade, but very poorly known. Proposed race cayoensis (Belize) not diagnosable; Honduran populations of mexicanus approach ridgwayi in most characters, and latter is very like littoralis. Sight records from NW Peru (Tumbes) presumed to refer to littoralis. Race remoratus intergrades with ruficaudus in S Venezuela (R Casiquiare region). Ten subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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