Fort Whipple, Arizona, USA.
Forms a group with V. cassinii (see above) and V. solitarius. Smaller S races notius and montanus may represent a separate species, as tentatively supported by molecular evidence#R; vocal analysis reveals that montanus often has simpler and purer song phrases, with less modulation and little burry quality in the notes, and that notius appears similar (score 2)#R, but, while notius is strikingly short-winged, montanus is intermediate; more research needed. Proposed race jacksoni (SC Montana) included in nominate; in Mexico, proposed races pinicolus (Mound Valley, in Chihuahua) and repetens (Tixtla, in Guerrero) likewise treated as synonyms of nominate. Race notius dates from Feb, montanus from Oct. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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