J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Friendly Islands = Tonga Islands.
Race manuae is rather distinctive with grey-scaled underparts, lacking white streaking except for a few pale shaft streaks; implication that it uniquely possesses a reduced (or no) pale wingpanel#R is, however, mistaken, as this is shown also by races tenebrosa and nesiotes, while claim that “its vocalizations are higher pitched than similar, presumably homologous, vocalizations of Polynesian Starlings”#R is also unfounded, since analysis of recorded evidence indicates that the only vocal difference which it may show is a higher number of notes in its song (a minor distinction requiring confirmation)#R. Races tutuilae and brevirostris have scaling on upperparts, unlike all other taxa. Race pachyrhampha misspelt in HBW. Twelve subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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