Europe = Sweden.
Closely related to L. cristatus, L. phoenicuroides and L. isabellinus; has in the past been considered conspecific with one or all of these, but genetic analyses support treatment as separate species. Hybridizes with all three aforementioned species#R#R#R: mixed pairs and hybrids with L. phoenicuroides regular where ranges overlap; occasional hybridization with L. isabellinus and L. cristatus in C Asia. Also hybridizes, rarely, with L. senator#R#R. Proposed races kobylini (SE Europe to Asia Minor and NE Iran) and pallidifrons (W & WC Siberia) sometimes accepted, often tentatively (as in HBW), but both are strongly variable individually and perhaps due to influence of hybridization; juxtus (described from E England) is undiagnosable. Treated as monotypic.
Europe (except N, NW & SW) E to WC Siberia (NW Altai), S to N Iberia, Sardinia, S Italy, Sicily, Balkans, Asia Minor, Levant, Caucasus and NW Iran. Winters in S & E Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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