No very close relatives except R. cuvieri, with which usually considered conspecific; fairly close to R. ambiguus, these three constituting the so-called “yelping group” of toucans. Proposed forms aurantiirostris, erythrorhynchus and haematorhynchus are merely red-billed or orange-billed variants; other proposed forms are monilis (Guyana) and oblitus (R Tapajós, in Brazil). Monotypic.
E Venezuela, the Guianas, and NE Brazil E of R Negro and, S of Amazon, E of lower R Xingu in N Pará and N Maranhão.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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