J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
no locality = Cape Town, South Africa.
Often considered conspecific with C. brachydactyla (with dukhunensis), and especially C. blanfordi and C. eremica. Geographical variation among many contiguous races limited and broadly clinal, and further study may show that several taxa are not sustainable; however, birds in Nigeria (currently saturatior) and race williamsi are genetically distinctive and warrant further study#R. Other named races are ongumaensis (N Namibia), included in spleniata, witputzi (S Namibia), in nominate, and vagilans (E Botswana and NE South Africa), in nivenae; description of anderssoni (C Namibia) apparently based on worn non-breeding specimen of nominate. Eight subspecies tentatively recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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