America = South Carolina, USA.
Possibly closer to M. portoricensis and M. herminieri than to M. formicivorus. Slightly longer-winged (more migratory) populations of W Great Plains S & W to C Colorado sometimes separated as race caurinus, supposedly also with slightly deeper yellow wash below; tone of underparts, however, varies greatly among all populations, and subspecific division considered unwarranted. Monotypic.
Breeds in extreme S Canada from S Manitoba (L Winnipeg) E to S Quebec, and in C & E USA from E Montana (E of Rocky Mts) across to Atlantic coast, S to C Colorado, C New Mexico, Gulf of Mexico and Florida.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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