Poulo Condor, south Vietnam.
Closely related to G. sonneratii and G. lafayettii; hybridizes locally with G. sonneratii in areas of contact. An attempt to re-create the phylogeographical history of both wild and captive populations of this species identified nine highly divergent mtDNA clades (seven common to both populations), with three clades widely distributed in Eurasia, but the others restricted to S & SE Asia—one in Japan and SE China, two exclusive to Yunnan (S China), and another closely related to distribution of cock fighting; patterns suggest that different clades arose in different regions, e.g. Yunnan, S & SW China and/or surrounding areas, and Indian Subcontinent, respectively, thus supporting theory of multiple origins in S & SE Asia#R. Geographical variation clearly clinal; intergradation occurs between at least three (probably four) of the accepted races. Proposed race gallina (from Himachal Pradesh, in N India) treated as a synonym of murghi; some introduced populations have been described as races, e.g. in Philippines (philippensis) and Micronesia (micronesiae), but none considered valid. Five subspecies usually recognized.
Occurs also in Philippines, Sulawesi and parts of Lesser Sundas, where probably introduced. Introduced or feral in many areas, including throughout Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia; Reunion and the Grenadines; probably also New Zealand and South Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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