Hitherto treated as conspecific with F. chicquera, but differs in its barred vs plain back, scapulars, rump and uppertail, with heavier barring below and on wings (3); plain, slightly elongated pale buff-pink breast feathers vs plain white or narrowly dark-streaked upper breast (2); chestnut of nape extending less onto mantle (2); more black markings on eyebrow and moustachial stripe (ns); and preferred breeding habitat, closely linked to Borassus palms and not generally associated with human habitation vs frequent nesting close to villages, and only occasionally in Borassus (1). Further, genetic differences between ruficollis (African) and Asian chicquera suggested as sufficient to warrant treatment as separate species#R#R. Validity of form horsbrughi, described on basis of single individual, has been questioned#R; may not merit recognition. Two subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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