Member of the V. passerinus clade (see V. passerinus). Formerly was often treated as conspecific with V. chocoensis, but differs in plumage, habitat choice and, reputedly, vocalizations; sometimes believed to be conspecific with V. cassini, but study needed of circumstances in apparent small range of overlap. Races intergrade to large extent; specimen from E Colombia described as separate race caquetanus, but considered to represent subadult of orenocensis. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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