Shymkent, south Kazakhstan.
See L. collurio. Until recently, usually treated as conspecific with L. isabellinus, but differs in its tawny-rufous vs pale greyish crown (2); darker sandy-grey upperparts and tail (1); bold vs indistinct white supercilium and strong white vs buffy underparts (2); different wing formula (1); and different migration route and moult regime#R (1); vocalizations also said to differ somewhat. Proposed race karelini (Syr Darya to Turkmenistan), grey above (including crown) and very pale below, might be a hybrid form representing introgressed populations between present species and L. collurio#R#R; further investigation needed. Monotypic.
C & E Kazakhstan S to Transcaspia, NE, E & S Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan (N and probably W of R Indus) and extreme NW China (NW Xinjiang); non-breeding mainly Arabia and NE & E Africa, with some in W Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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