Until recently, considered conspecific with F. parva, but analysis indicates considerable divergence, including genetically#R#R; differs in its (in breeding male) smaller, reddish-orange throat-patch, surrounded by grey border vs more extensive throat-patch merging directly into belly (3); (in male) crown and nape browner (1); (in both sexes) uppertail-coverts blacker than uppertail (1); (in female) greyer, colder underparts with more restricted whitish throat (ns[1); (in first winter) white vs ochraceous-buff tips and edges to tertials and greater coverts (ns); moult pattern (ns); longer wing (at least 1); (in breeding male) song recalling pipit vs like F. hypoleuca (at least 1). Monotypic.
E European Russia E to E Siberia (to Kamchatka), S to extreme NE Kazakhstan, N Mongolia and Amurland; non-breeding mainly from S Nepal E to NE India, Bangladesh, SE Asia and SE China.
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