French: Carouge à épaulettes German: Rotflügelstärling Spanish: Sargento alirrojo
Charleston, South Carolina, USA
Subspecies and Distribution
A. p. arctolegus
Oberholser, 1907 – SE Alaska and W Canada (SE Yukon, C Mackenzie, NW Saskatchewan and NC Manitoba S to C British Columbia, S Alberta and W & NE Ontario) S in USA to E Montana, S South Dakota and Iowa; migrates to S USA.
A. p. caurinus
Ridgway, 1901 – SW Canada (British Columbia) S along US coast to N California.
A. p. nevadensis
Grinnell, 1914 – SC & SE British Columbia S in W USA (from C Washington, N Idaho and WC Oregon) to SC California and S Nevada.
A. p. aciculatus
Mailliard, 1915 – Kern County, in S California.
A. p. neutralis
Ridgway, 1901 – S coastal California and extreme NW Mexico (N Baja California).
A. p. sonoriensis
Ridgway, 1887 – SW USA (extreme S Nevada, SE California and Arizona) and NW Mexico (N Sonora).
A. p. fortis
Ridgway, 1901 – USA E of Rocky Mts (in W Montana and SE Idaho E to W Nebraska and W Kansas, S to C & EC Arizona, C & SE New Mexico and N & W Texas); N populations migrate S to Gulf Coast.
A. p. phoeniceus
(Linnaeus, 1766) – Red-winged Blackbird – SE Canada (S Quebec E to W Newfoundland and Nova Scotia) and E USA (E from Wisconsin, Iowa and E Nebraska, S to NE Texas, NE Louisiana and C Florida); N populations migrate S to at least Gulf Coast.
A. p. littoralis
A. H. Howell & van Rossem, 1928 – coast of Gulf of Mexico from Texas E to Florida.
A. p. mearnsi
A. H. Howell & van Rossem, 1928 – SC Florida.
A. p. floridanus
Maynard, 1895 – S Florida (including Florida Keys).
A. p. bryanti
Ridgway, 1887 – NW Bahamas.
A. p. nyaritensis
Dickey & van Rossem, 1925 – Pacific coast from W Mexico (S from Nayarit) S to W El Salvador.
A. p. nelsoni
Dickerman, 1965 – Morelos and Puebla, in SC Mexico.
A. p. grinnelli
A. B. Howell, 1917 – El Salvador to NW Costa Rica (Guanacaste).
A. p. megapotamus
Oberholser, 1919 – S Texas (extreme S USA) and E Mexico (S to N Veracruz).
A. p. richmondi
Nelson, 1897 – S Veracruz S to N Costa Rica (Limón).
A. p. pallidulus
Van Tyne & Trautman, 1946 – N Yucatán Peninsula, in SE Mexico.
A. p. arthuralleni
Dickerman, 1974 – L Petén Itzá, in N Guatemala.
A. p. mailliardorum
van Rossem, 1926 – C coastal California, in SW USA.
A. p. californicus
Nelson, 1897 – C California (Central Valley).
A. p. gubernator
(Wagler, 1832) – Bicolored Blackbird – C Mexico, from Durango S to Jalisco and Puebla.
Male average 22·7 cm, 63·6 g; female average 18·5 cm, 41·5 g. Male nominate race is almost entirely dull black, with lesser upperwing-coverts red... read more
Male song variable, consists of a few short notes followed by a long and loud nasal trill,... read more
Marshes, ponds, roadside ditches, wet meadows, rice fields and other agricultural land, and... read more
Food and feeding
Seeds, also insects and other arthropods. Takes seeds of both wild plants, e.g. water grasses (Echinochloa) and filarees (... read more
Season Mar–Jul in most of North America and Apr–Aug (sometimes to Nov) in Costa Rica. Mostly polygynous, ranging from... read more
Populations in W USA, Mexico and farther S are mostly resident. Those in N & E North America (... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened. Common to very common, and locally abundant. Global populations estimated at minimum of 200,000,000 individuals. Found in many modified environments... read more
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