Recent analysis of mtDNA fragments of museum specimens from across Europe#R revealed little differentiation (thus incomplete lineage-sorting) between the two W races, but both, as well as populations of low mountain ranges, were characterized by private alleles (alleles unique to a [sub]population); further, when sequenced specimens were grouped according to origin (an alpine group, a group from low mountain ranges, and two N groups), significant differentiation between alpine and low-mountain groups (similar to that between alpine and the two N groups) was evident, suggesting that low-mountain populations have origin similar to that of arctic–alpine disjunction, and that these populations are remnants of a once broader distribution#R. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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