southern Europe = lower Austria.
Formerly treated as conspecific with E. godlewskii. Geographical variation mainly clinal, races grading into each other; birds from N Europe tend to be darker than those from S Europe and C Asia, but differences between races generally slight. See also E. godlewskii (below). Other proposed races are callensis (from Bom Jesus, Braga, in N Portugal), africana (Spain and Morocco E to Tunisia) and hordei (Greece to SC Turkey and Levant), all synonymized with nominate; and prageri (Crimea and Caucasus), mokrzechyi (extreme W Caucasus), serebrowskii (Altai and Tarbagatay) and lasdini (Pamirs), all synonymized with par. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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