Closely related to A. chukar, A. magna and A. philbyi#R, and has been considered to include all three. Possibly hybridizes with A. chukar in some areas; hybridizes with A. rufa in S French Alps. Race whitakeri seems to have diverged somewhat from other forms (genetic distance of 3.5%)#R, and this race also reasonably distinctive in plumage#R. Race orlandoi often subsumed within saxatilis, but appears to be worthy of recognition#R#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Indeterminate mixed populations of present species and A. chukar introduced into UK, Russia, USA, Canada, Mexico and New Zealand; Hawaiian birds known to derive from A. chukar.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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