Europe = Sweden.
Molecular study#R indicates that nominate race forms a clade with C. hawaiiensis; further study needed. Races may well merit treatment as separate species, but, although breeding ranges not known to meet (200 km apart at nearest points), intermediates are said to occur in foothills of Altai and Sayan Mts; calls very similar. Proposed races tschuii (Gilgit, in N Pakistan) and ultimus (Russian Altai) average smaller and finer-billed than other taxa, but differences seem trivial and both included in nominate; populations of E Siberia, Mongolia and NE China described as race centralis, tending to be slightly larger and with a more purplish sheen than pastinator, but differences slight and clinal. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Introduced (nominate race) in New Zealand, chiefly in S part of North I and Canterbury area of South I.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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