Volcán de Irazú, Costa Rica.
Formerly considered conspecific with C. occidentalis. Geographical variation of present species very slight; some races may be merged in due course. Recent study#R identified four mitochondrial lineages corresponding to isolated mountain ranges (Sierra Madre Oriental; Sierra Madre del Sur; highlands of Chiapas, Guatemala and El Salvador; and Talamanca Cordillera); significant vocal variation was apparent among the four clades, but vocal variation and genetic variation were uncorrelated; further research required. Proposed race confusus (SE San Luis Potosí S in mountains to N Oaxaca) synonymized with nelsoni. Eight subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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