Relationships uncertain. Often considered to include M. colombianus as a race; sometimes treated as conspecific with M. petersoni. Forms described from E Ecuador (aequatorialis) and Bolivia (minimus), now thought to represent individual variation, are synonymized with nominate. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Perhaps further, as yet undescribed, races from W Venezuela (Cerro Guacamayo) and N Colombia (Santa Marta Mts).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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