d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837,
Ayopayo, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Internal taxonomy uncertain owing to remoteness of Andean valleys inhabited, and inadequate documentation of extent and frequency of intermediates; in S of range, variation from centralis to tectricialis and nominate appears clinal; current treatment maintained pending further study. Seven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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