near Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.
Until recently considered conspecific with C. cearae. These two may form a group with C. roberti, C. peruviana, C. ardesiaca, C. castaneiceps and perhaps C. melanogaster. Geographical limits of races uncertain, and S populations of race vulgaris are strikingly different in voice from all other populations (and also from C. cearae)#R; marked genetic structure found in S populations#R may reflect these vocal differences. Proposed forms anomalus from Paraguay (Alto Paraná) and rubecula from Brazil (Veadeiros, in Goiás) respectively subsumed into vulgaris and nominate. Two specimens from E Brazil (Ibiquera, in C Bahia) show distinctive plumage differences, and may represent an unnamed taxon. Two subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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