Probably closest to A. carolinensis, with which has even been considered conspecific, but differs notably in both voice and morphology. Race otiosus has been considered a distinct species on basis of supposed sympatric breeding with race minimus in N Venezuela; its presence in Venezuela, however, now seems rather unlikely, as relevant specimens were in poor condition and, in any case, appear not to have matched otiosus well; also, differences from other races in vocalizations and plumage are minimal#R. Likewise, race minimus sometimes considered a separate species, but again differences appear insufficient. Race saltuarius initially thought to belong to A. sericocaudatus; subsequently found to be closer to present species, but thought to occur sympatrically with rutilus and so was proposed for full species status; voice and morphometrics, however, place it within present species#R, where it is sometimes synonymized with rutilus, being considered a grey plumage morph of latter. Race rutilus includes proposed forms ornatus (SE Brazil) and cortapau (S Brazil); nominate includes noctivigilus#R (Venezuela); proposed race maximus, known only from its holotype (from upper Cauca Valley, in SW Colombia), is tentatively synonymized with minimus. Sight records of present species from C Colombia, S Ecuador, Peru and C Brazil not yet subspecifically assigned; some of these may refer to as yet undescribed races. Five subspecies recognized.
Populations in C Colombia, S Ecuador, Peru and C Brazil of uncertain status, and not yet assigned to race.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!