Rio Jaguaripe, Bahia, Brazil.
Type locality previously given as Pará, but recently shown to be Bahia#R; thus, Pará population, hitherto listed as nominate, adopts name amazonicus, while Bahia population, previously known as maximiliani, takes name geoffroyi. Race squamiger sometimes treated as a full species but this seems inappropriate, as its range sits inside mosaic of ranges of other races, and evidence for split seems weak; major plumage difference involves reduced or non-existent lower black breast-line, but similar absence noted extralimitally#R, and it has recently been speculated as a possible feature of the still unknown juvenile plumage of geoffroyi#R; geographical variation largely clinal, and populations intergrade. Seven subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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