São Paulo de Olivença, south bank of upper River Solimões, west Amazonas, Brazil.
Taxonomy complex and confusing; P. oleagineus hitherto treated as conspecific. Nominate race has blackish bill; the other five races, with yellow bill, have been treated as a distinct species “Yellow-billed Oropendola” P. alfredi, albeit accepting such an arrangement may be incorrect#R; indeed, DNA divergence between race alfredi and nominate is relatively small, and their songs are similar (a low-pitched rolling trill switching to longer notes rising in volume and pitch, then a steeply downslurred explosive whistle); intermediate specimens reported from E Ecuador. Race neglectus found not to associate with nominate in foothills of Colombian E Andes, the two behaving as separate species; song comprises 1–3 well-spaced introductory notes in crescendo with final explosive note consisting of a short rattling, then a melodious note. Song of race sincipitalis apparently unrecorded, but that of salmoni and atrocastaneus has well-spaced introductory notes in crescendo (as in P. oleagineus) but without a longer final note#R; these two also differ from other races by their dull mid- or dark grey vs yellowish head sides and throat to upper breast, and chestnut or chestnut-tinged grey vs olive-green midcrown to nape. Evident need for detailed integrative study of morphology, voice and genetics. Proposed race australis (described from Santa Cruz, in C Bolivia) supposedly darker than alfredi, but considered to fall within range of variation of latter and therefore synonymized with it. Six subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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