French: Quiscale rouilleux German: Roststärling Spanish: Zanate canadiense
Statius Müller, 1776,
Two subspecies recognized.
Subspecies and Distribution
E. c. carolinus
(Statius Müller, 1776) – S of tundra from NW Alaska (Kotzebue Sound) E across Canada from Northern Territories (Mackenzie Delta) to Labrador, and S to extreme NE USA (New York State E to C Maine); migrates to E USA.
E. c. nigrans
Burleigh & J. L. Peters, 1948 – SE Canada (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick); migrates to E USA.
Male 23 cm, 45·9–80·4 g; female 21 cm, 47–76·5 g. Male nominate race breeding is uniformly black with rather slight greenish or bluish gloss... read more
Male song described as a quiet gurgling sound followed by a shrill “kushaléé... read more
Breeds in clearings within conifer forest and conifer–deciduous forest, usually near water in... read more
Food and feeding
Has a rather broad-based diet, feeding on insects and other invertebrates, small vertebrates, carrion, seeds and some fruit. In summer... read more
Season Apr/May–Jul; single-brooded. Apparently monogamous. Nests solitarily, in E of range also in small loose colonies. Nest built... read more
Strongly migratory, with no overlap between breeding and non-breeding ranges. Post-breeding... read more
Status and conservation
VULNERABLE. Classified as “Declining” in the USA (Yellow WatchList priority species for conservation). Estimated total population 2,000,000 individuals in period... read more
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